Evidence indicates that as many as 140 million of India’s rural poor migrate seasonally to cities, industries, and farms in search of work. These are migrants who move back and forth undertaking a vast array of casual work in construction, manufacturing, services, and farm sector. They are part of India’s unorganized, informal workforce estimated over 350 million that remains excluded from services and rights as workers and citizens, in their rural homes and in their places of work in urban, industrial, and rural areas.

Movement of workers happens from impoverished rural regions to the more affluent urban and industrial pockets. The historically established list of out-migration regions such as UP, Bihar and Jharkhand has expanded to include states such Rajasthan, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh.
Poor wages, erratic employment, hazardous work conditions and lack of essential services define the experience of migrant workers. Access to public entitlements is largely linked to proof of residence which migrants are unlike to possess – this results in their exclusion from subsidized food-grains, housing, health care and other benefits available to local citizens. Migrants survive on the margins, i.e. on construction sites, brick kilns or polluted manufacturing zones on the peripheries of cities. When they live within the city, it is often in informal settlements, that are deemed illegal by civic authorities, and hence placed outside planning and provisioning.

There is an urgent need for solutions to transform migration into a more dignified and rewarding opportunity. Without this, making growth inclusive or the very least, sustainable, will remain a very distant dream.
State wise labour migration in india
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